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- The ten-item Penn State Dependence Index (PSDI) suggested greater dependence on smoking than vaping
- The most common reasons for vaping were to reduce smoking (79%), enjoyment of flavors (78%), and ability to vape where smoking is not allowed (73%). Perceptions of less harm to others (69%) or to self were the next most common (65%). Fewer than half used ECs to reduce stress, for affordability, or because others used them.
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- Citation: Rhoades DA, Comiford AL, Dvorak JD, Ding K, Hopkins M, Spicer P, Wagener TL, Doescher MP. Vaping patterns, nicotine dependence and reasons for vaping among American Indian dual users of cigarettes and electronic cigarettes. BMC Public Health. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):1211. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-7523-5. PMID: 31477072; PMCID: PMC6721166.
- Acknowledgement: Grants from the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health (P20CA202921 to University of Oklahoma, and 5P20CA202923 to Cherokee Nation) supported this study.