ENDS Vape Shops

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Community, Support, Networking

2019: A Peek Past the Vape Clouds: Vape Shop Decline in Long Beach, California during 2015-2018

  • Findings suggest vape users support Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) retailers that promote community-building...

Economic Information

2019: The Vapor industry Economic Impact Study

  • The vapor industry is a dynamic part of the U.S. economy, accounting for about $24.46 billion in output or about 0.14 percent of GDP. It employs approximately 166,007 Americans who earned wages and benefits of about $7.90 billion.
  • Members of the industry and their employees paid $3.31 billion in federal, state and local taxes. This does not include state and local sales taxes or excise taxes that may apply for specific retail purchases which are estimated to total $1.67 billion.
  • Original link to the study


2020: Vape shop owners/managers’ opinions about FDA regulation of e-cigarettes

  • Vape shop owners/managers reported:
    • 1) entering the industry with positive intentions for their customers;
    • 2) training their personnel to adhere to regulations and provide good customer service; and
    • 3) significant concerns about the impact of FDA regulations. With regard to the latter, participants reported mistrust of the intentions of the FDA regulations, financial implications of the regulations (particularly for small businesses), difficulty understanding and interpreting the regulations, insufficient evidence to support the regulations, negative impact on customer service, negative impact on product offerings and product innovation/advancement, and negative implications of flavor bans and/or restrictions on sale of flavors.
  • PDF Version

2020: Article: Native American Reservations a Haven for New York Vape Shops

  • New York State’s 20 percent excise tax on vapor products and nearly 9 percent sales tax also do not apply to the Shinnecock and other tribes. Essentially, Silva said, patrons can spend almost 30 percent less than they normally spend, and nobody has to worry about breaking the law.

2016: A Qualitative Study of Vape Shop Operators' Perceptions of Risks and Benefits of E-Cigarette Use and Attitude Toward Their Potential Regulation by the US Food and Drug Administration, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, or North Carolina, 2015

  • Most expressed concern that complying with potential regulations, including banning flavors or tax increases, would jeopardize their business. Some felt that ENDS should not be regulated as tobacco products and felt that big tobacco was behind these proposed regulations. Most owners supported age restrictions and quality controls for e-liquid.

Second Hand Vapor

2022: Computational modeling method to estimate secondhand exposure potential from exhalations during e-vapor product use under various real-world scenarios

  • Acetaldehyde and acrolein were not detectable after use of any of the test products.
  • When these data were used as inputs to a computational room air level and non-user intake model, the ambient concentrations of exhaled nicotine and formaldehyde predicted that non-user intakes were substantially reduced for test product use compared to conventional cigarette use.
  • Collectively, the results predict that room air levels and exposure of the selected analytes to non-users were relatively low and several-fold below regulatory PELs and AIHA limit under the modeled space and use conditions.
  • ...room air levels of nicotine, formaldehyde, acrolein, and acetaldehyde levels were significantly below OSHA PELs or American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) limit...

2020: Comparative Indoor Pollution from Glo, Iqos, and Juul, Using Traditional Combustion Cigarettes as Benchmark: Evidence from the Randomized SUR-VAPES AIR Trial

  • Glo, Iqos, and Juul have significantly less intense and persistent effects on indoor pollution in comparison to combustible tobacco cigarettes.

2018: Characterization of the Spatial and Temporal Dispersion Differences Between Exhaled E-Cigarette Mist and Cigarette Smoke

  • For both product categories, the particle concentrations registered following each puff were in the same order of magnitude. However, for e-cigarettes the particle concentration returned rapidly to background values within seconds; for conventional cigarettes it increased with successive puffs, returning to background levels after 30–45 minutes. Unlike for the e-cigarette devices tested, such temporal variation was dependent on the room ventilation rate. Particle size measurements showed that exhaled e-cigarette particles were smaller than those emitted during smoking conventional cigarettes and evaporated almost immediately after exhalation, thus affecting the removal of particles through evaporation rather than displacement by ventilation.

2017 Evaluation of Chemical Exposures at a Vape Shop

  • We collected air samples for flavoring chemicals (diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, acetaldehyde, and acetoin), nicotine, formaldehyde, and propylene glycol.
  • Concentrations of vaping-related chemicals in our air samples were below occupational exposure limits.
  • Citation: NIOSH 2017. Evaluation of chemical exposures at a vape shop. By Zwack LM, Stefaniak AB, LeBouf RF. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Hazard Evaluation Report 2015-0107-3279

2017 Dr. Michael Siegel - Vape Shop Air Sampling by California State Health Department Suggests that Second Hand Vape Exposure is Minimal

  • This study, although conducted under very high exposure conditions in a small, non-ventilated vape shop with many employees and customers vaping and clouds of vapor visible, did not document any dangerous levels of exposure to any hazardous chemical. Nicotine exposure was essentially non-existent. Formaldehyde exposure was no different than in many indoor and outdoor environments at baseline. Acetone, acetoin, other aldehydes, toluene, benzene, and xylene were not detected. Chemicals that have been associated with "popcorn lung" were also not detected by the standard method.
  • This study adds to the evidence that under real-life conditions, "secondhand vaping" does not appear to pose any significant health risks.

2015: A rapid method for the chromatographic analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath of tobacco cigarette and electronic cigarette smokers

  • Tobacco cigarette smoke provided the samples containing highest concentrations of all compounds analyzed. Besides nicotine it contained benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene and naphthalene in high abundance as well as other compounds such as isoprene, pent-1-ene, n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane and others.
  • This composition was in strong contrast with that of vapor from the e-cigarettes in which all these compounds were virtually absent except nicotine

2014: Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks

  • Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), were conducted under “worst case” assumptions about both chemical content of aerosol and liquids as well as behavior of vapers.
  • There was no evidence of potential for exposures of e-cigarette users to contaminants that are associated with risk to health at a level that would warrant attention if it were an involuntary workplace exposures.
  • Exposures of bystanders are likely to be orders of magnitude less, and thus pose no apparent concern.

2012: Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality

  • Comparisons of pollutant concentrations were made between e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke samples. Pollutants included VOCs, carbonyls, PAHs, nicotine, TSNAs, and glycols.
  • Non-cancer risk analysis revealed “No Significant Risk” of harm to human health for vapor samples from e-liquids.
  • With regard to cancer risk analysis, no vapor sample from e-liquids exceeded the risk limit for either children or adults.

Smoking Cessation / Switching

2019: A Comparison of E-Cigarette Use Patterns and Smoking Cessation Behavior among Vapers by Primary Place of Purchase

  • Among those smoking 12 months prior to the survey, smoking cessation rates were higher for vape shop and internet customers than for retail customers, even though retail customers were more likely to use FDA-approved smoking cessation aids.

2018: A Qualitative Exploration of the Role of Vape Shop Environments in Supporting Smoking Abstinence

  • At an individual level, shops can provide a supportive environment. Shops also provided ongoing support to reduce risk of smoking lapse.
  • At an interpersonal level, shops can offer friendly personable service. For some vapers, shops also provided an opportunity for social interaction, acting as a community group.
  • At a structural level, shops provide a competitive environment, responding to legislative changes.
  • Furthermore, vape shops provide opportunity to those who do not wish to stop smoking to try vaping and perhaps eventually stop smoking.
  • Vape shops can provide effective behavioural support to quitters to maintain smoking abstinence. Health professionals could capitalise on this through partnership working with shops, to ensure best outcomes for clients wanting to use e-cigarettes to quit smoking.

2018: Advice From Former-Smoking E-Cigarette Users to Current Smokers on How to Use E-Cigarettes as Part of an Attempt to Quit Smoking

  • This study describes the advice that former-smokers who used e-cigarettes to quit smoking would offer to smokers who are considering using an e-cigarette to support an attempt to quit smoking. Vapers advised smokers to find the right combination of device, flavors and nicotine strength, continue to smoke and vape for a while if they wished, not be deterred by past failed attempts to quit smoking, and expect health to improve after they have switched to vaping. Encouraging smokers to interact with vaping peers in vape shops and in online vaping-dedicated discussion forums may help significantly more smokers switch to vaping.
  • PDF Version

2018: A qualitative assessment of business perspectives and tactics of tobacco and vape shop retailers in three communities in Orange County, CA, 2015–2016

  • Tobacco shops’ reasons for carrying e-cigarettes were business oriented... In comparison, vape shops opened because of the owner’s positive experiences with e-cigarettes and belief in the potential of e-cigarettes to help people quit or reduce smoking.

2016: A Qualitative Study of Vape Shop Operators' Perceptions of Risks and Benefits of E-Cigarette Use and Attitude Toward Their Potential Regulation by the US Food and Drug Administration, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, or North Carolina, 2015

  • Most owners were former smokers and used ENDS to quit. Vape shop owners are in a unique position to serve as frontline consumer educators.
  • Vape shop owners perceived ENDS to be less harmful and more economical than conventional cigarettes and indicated that most of their customers used ENDS as a smoking cessation tool

2016: A Pilot Study of Retail ‘Vape Shops’ in the San Francisco Bay Area

  • The intensive engagement with customers over time provides social support for quitting and practical advice, both of which are elements of recommended smoking cessation counseling.

2016: A Dollars and “Sense” Exploration of Vape Shop Spending and E-cigarette Use

  • Across the US, vape shops have emerged to provide e-cigarette users access to products not usually available at gas stations or retail stores.
  • Mod use and intention to use e-cigs as a cessation device were significantly associated with vape shop spending.
  • Customers who spent more than $50/month used lower levels of nicotine (mg/ml) (p=0.003) but a greater quantity of e-liquid (ml/month).

Vape Shops - Beyond Community and Switching

2018: A qualitative exploration of information-seeking by electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) users in New Zealand

  • Several participants used Google to search for information on ENDS’ health effects, but described the material they retrieved as vague or contradictory.
  • Participants also found ENDS retailers provided helpful information on device selection, operation and maintenance
  • Many had also asked retailers about the nicotine level they should be using, and how e-liquids compared with cigarettes
  • Yet while specialist ENDS retailers offered helpful practical advice, non-specialist retailers often did not.
  • Our participants reported positive interactions with specialist vape shop retailers, whose practical guidance assisted vaping uptake.

Articles, Blogs, Op-Eds, etc

2022: The unrelenting assault on vaping is taking a toll

2022: Popular Advocate Forced to Close Her Small-Town Vape Shop

2022: Op-Ed: Celebrating businesses that have helped reduce the tobacco burden

2022: Op-Ed: President Biden should use Small Business Week to save lives

Social Media

2022: Twitter - Thread about vape shops

2020: Twitter - Thread about Vape Shops and E-Liquid Manufacturers Donating Supplies During COVID Outbreak

2019: Twitter - Thread about Vape Business Closures

  • Ongoing project

Videos, Webinars, Summits, Conferences, Podcasts, Interviews, etc

2022: E-Cigarette Summit US 2022 - Shop Owner, Marc Slis


2019: Federal Flavor Ban and Economic Significance

  • Senator Ron Johnson to President Trump

Tools for shops: Age Verification

Tools for shops: Recycling

Tools for shops: Training Programs For Shop Staff


  • The course is called SQUIRAL (Supporting Quitting: Understanding the theory of addiction & Increasing knowledge of Replacements & remedies. An onLine course). https://squiral.net/home
  • It has been designed for adults over the age of 21 who currently work as:
    • LMIC (low and low-middle income country) Community Health Workers
    • Indigenous community health workers; or
    • Vape shop staff or other retailers of THR products.
  • The course may also be useful for THR advocates who regularly advise people who smoke to switch to THR alternatives.

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